Star Myths and Leonardo da Vinci's Salvator Mundi

Star Myths and Leonardo da Vinci's Salvator Mundi

 image: Wikimedia commons (  link  ).

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

Above is a digital image of the recently-rediscovered painting entitled Salvator Mundi (Latin for "Savior of the World") which art-history scholars, aided by close analysis and assisted by modern technology, believe to be an authentic painting by Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519).

The existence of such a painting by da Vinci was known from the many surviving copies of da Vinci's original which were painted by other artists following his lead, but until recently the location and identity of the original itself by da Vinci was unknown.

Indeed, the Salvator Mundi shown above, now believed to be the original by da Vinci, was thought to be just another one of the copies, and thus escaped notice, until it was purchased at an estate sale in Louisiana in 2005. Part of the reason for the lack of identification of the painting as a da Vinci original was the heavy "overpainting" which had been layered over the original artist's work down through the centuries.

The painting was put up for sale at a Sotheby's auction in 1958, described as a copy by an artist "after Leonardo da Vinci" (in other words, in the style of da Vinci, and in imitation of da Vinci). At the time, the painting was attributed to an artist named Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (1466 - 1516), who worked directly with da Vinci and who, along with the younger Bernardino Luini (1480 - 1532), was considered to be one of the top students of the master. 

At the Sotheby's auction, the painting sold for 45 GBP, or about $120, to a buyer named Kuntz (specifically, "Kuntz Private Collection USA"). It is now almost certain that the buyers were Warren E. and Minnie Stanfill Kuntz, of New Orleans, who often traveled to Europe to purchase artwork for their collection, as detailed in this recent article in the Wall Street Journal

Warren E. Kuntz lived from 1899 - 1968, and his wife Minnie Stanfill Kuntz lived from 1906 - 1987. After her passing, the painting was inherited by her nephew, Basil Clovis Hendry, Sr., of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Hendry lived from 1919 - 2004. After his passing, the painting was auctioned at an estate sale in 2005. A pair of art dealers, Robert Simon and Alexander Parrish, purchased the painting at the estate auction for less than $10,000 -- although the exact details of the purchase price are protected by a nondisclosure clause in a later deal they made when selling the painting for a reported price of $75 to $80 million, to Yves Bouvier, in 2013. 

The significant jump in price between 2005 and 2013 is explained by the fact that, after purchasing the painting from the estate sale in Louisiana, dealers Simon and Parrish "teamed up with a few others to hire Dianne Dwyer Modestini, a paintings conservator at New York University, to clean and study it. After she realized the work might be a da Vinci, the dealers spent several years taking it to museum curators to seek validation" (as reported in the Wall Street Journal story of September 19, 2018 linked previously). 

It was judged to be the original and first exhibited as such in 2011.

After purchasing the work (now authenticated by academics as the original Salvator Mundi by da Vinci) in 2013 from Parrish and a consortium of others, Yves Bouvier then sold it that same year to Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev, for about $127 million (according to the Wall Street Journal article linked previously, although this story in Business Insider says $127.5 million). 

This purchase later became the source of a dispute between the two, which is part of the notorious "Bouvier Affair." Both articles linked above pass discreetly over this imbroglio with only the barest mention -- if you wish to read more about it you can conduct your own web search and find numerous articles which describe the complex details of the ongoing dispute.

The article in the Wall Street Journal implies that this dispute spurred the decision by Dmitry Rybolovlev to offer the painting for sale at Christie's, in 2017. Prior to the auction, Christie's apparently estimated that the work would only sell for about $100 million (which would obviously represent a loss over the previous sale price), but instead it sold for $450.3 million (including commission of about $300,000 to the auction house) to a buyer later revealed to be Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman of Saudi Arabia.

This purchase price represents the highest price ever paid for a painting to date.

The painting was then given as a diplomatic gift to Abu Dhabi, one of the seven emirates in the United Arab Emirates (and home of the UAE capitol city of the same name, Abu Dhabi). It is now part of the collection of a new art museum in Abu Dhabi, established in November of 2017, which paid about $525 million USD to the government of France for the right to use the "Louvre" name for the next thirty years -- and thus this museum will be known as the "Louvre Abu Dhabi."

Turning to the painting itself, the uncanny atmosphere and presence of the work does indeed strongly suggest that the work is that of Leonardo da Vinci himself. You can compare its proportions and artistic quality to that seen in the works of da Vinci's most highly-regarded direct understudies,  Boltraffio and Luini (see herehere and here for example) and ask yourself whether f the works of those others, as gifted and as accomplished as Boltraffio and Luini clearly are as artists, display the same unworldly quality that is associated with the artwork of da Vinci himself.   

In this interview published in 2011, Oxford professor emeritus of art history and Leonardo biographer Martin Kemp says of the above masterpiece, describing the first time he saw it:

You knew immediately? 

Yeah. It was quite clear. It had that kind of presence that Leonardos have. The "Mona Lisa" has a presence. So after that initial reaction, which is kind of almost inside your body, as it were, you look at it and you think, well, the handling of the better-preserved parts, like the hair and so on, is just incredibly good. It's got that kind of uncanny vortex, as if the hair is a living, moving substance, or like water, which is what Leonardo said hair was like. So it almost ceases to become hair, and it becomes a source of energy in its own right. It's a very characteristic way of doing hair, which Leonardo has. Then the blessing hand has got a lot of very understated anatomical structure in it. All the versions of the "Salvator Mundi" — and we've got drawings of the drapery and lots of copies — all of them have rather tubular fingers. What Leonardo had done, and the copyists and imitators didn't pick up, was to get just how the knuckle sort of sits underneath the skin. And the blessing hands of the ones in the copies are all rather smooth and routine, but this is somebody who actually knew what — and, you know, this is a young person, this is not an elderly person — knew how the flesh lies over the knuckles. So, that's pretty good.

Professor Kemp goes on to explain that the artistic quality of the crystal orb held in the left hand of the painting's subject provides additional evidence for attributing the painting to da Vinci himself. The explanations and descriptions Professor Kemp gives of the double-refraction which Professor Kemp notices in the crystal sphere are worth reading in the original interview, linked above. 

Additionally, Professor Kemp points out that depicting the Christ in the Salvator Mundi style but holding a crystal orb is an innovation that does not appear prior to this depiction, which is thought to date to about 1500 -- and that this detail also argues for attributing the painting to Leonardo. Professor Kemp explains:

And one of the points of the crystal sphere is that it relates iconographically to the crystalline sphere of the heavens, because in Ptolemaic cosmology the stars were in the fixed crystalline sphere, and so they were embedded. So what you've got in the "Salvator Mundi" is really a "a savior of the cosmos", and this is a very Leonardesque transformation.

You can look for yourself at numerous variations on the Salvator Mundi theme through the centuries, going back to the fourteenth, on this Wikimedia commons page.

Was Leonardo hinting that he understood that the characters and episodes described in the Biblical scriptures describe celestial figures, and the awesome motions of the celestial sphere? I would argue that it is very clear from other works by da Vinci that he incorporates specific constellational references in his art -- see for example previous discussions here and here.

The insightful Professor Kemp also points out that the painting appears to incorporate depth of field, with the upraised hand of blessing (the right hand of the subject, on the left as we face the painting itself) is quite clearly focused, in contrast to the face. Professor Kemp explains:

Another thing I subsequently looked at is that there's a difference from what we would call depth of field — the blessing hand and the tips of the fingers are in quite sharp focus. The face, even allowing for some of the damage, is in quite soft focus. Leonardo, in Manuscript D of 1507-1508, explored depth of field. If you bring something too close to you, you can't see it and it doesn't have a sense of focus. If you've got it an optimum point, it's much sharper. Then you move it away and it gets less sharp. He was investigating that phenomenon.

This characteristic would argue very strongly that this work was by Leonardo and none other. But it also may indicate that the artist wanted to call specific attention to the hand of blessing -- and I would again argue that, along with the crystal orb, the blessing hand has direct connections to the celestial sphere of the heavens, because this specific hand gesture (or mudra) is almost certainly derived from specific aspects of the outline of an important zodiac constellation.

I have previously argued at some length (such as in this 93-minute video on the identity of the Apostle Philip the Evangelist) that the specific hand gesture we see exhibited by the Christ figure in the artwork above (a hand gesture which is common to the Salvatore Mundi theme going back at least two centuries prior to the painting by da Vinci) relates directly to one of the distinctive features of the outline of the constellation Sagittarius.

Below is a star-chart showing Sagittarius and Scorpio, superimposed below the artwork on the bell krater attributed to the Pan Painter of ancient Greece (thought to have been painted in the first part of the fifth century BC), in which the distinctive crooked line which constitutes a kind of "plume" rising up from the head of the outline of the constellation Sagittarius can be clearly seen:

artemis actaeon sagittarius scorpio.jpg

Note that in addition to depicting the goddess Artemis with the same distinctive posture as that seen in the outline of Sagittarius (to include her bent knee on the left side as we face the painting, as well as her bow and arrow held at the same angle as that seen in the constellation Sagittarius), the ancient artist has also included a sort of "plume" or "tassel" which corresponds to the distinctive "plume" of the constellation (in the artwork, this plume is seen atop the quiver or whatever it is which we can see over the shoulder of the goddess on the left of her head as we face the artwork).

I would argue that this distinctive feature of the constellation Sagittarius, which the ancient Greek artist depicts as a tassel in the bell-krater artwork shown above, manifests in the Salvator Mundi artwork as the familiar "blessing hand" gesture seen in the da Vinci painting (and which Professor Kemp sees as having been a specific focus of Leonardo in this particular Salvator Mundi).

I have previously argued that the figure of Saint Patrick, whose act of "chasing the snakes out of Ireland" is almost certainly based upon the fact that Sagittarius can be seen to "chase" the multi-headed serpentine form of Scorpio from the sky, is also a Sagittarius figure -- and Patrick is traditionally depicted holding up the same "blessing hand" in artistic representations, such as that shown below:

 images: Wikimedia commons.   Left image link   and   right image link  .

images: Wikimedia commons. Left image link and right image link.

If some feel confused by the fact that this argument seems to indicate that Christ is associated with Sagittarius, along with Philip the Evangelist and the later figure of Patrick of Ireland, and wonder how all of them can be associated with the same constellation, it should be pointed out that the ancient myths appear to associate many figures with the same constellations. In previous posts I have used a modern metaphor to explain this phenomenon, based upon a quotation in Hamlet's Mill (1969) which declares that "The real actors on the stage of the universe are very few, if their adventures are many" (page 177), and said that it is similar to seeing a familiar actor in a different film and a different role than in previous films, perhaps wearing completely different attire or even speaking in a completely different accent or manner. In that analogy, the "actors" are the constellations, and they take on many different roles within the same myth-system of a culture, and across the superficially-different myth-systems of different cultures.

Christ in the scriptures is by no means always associated with the constellation Sagittarius. He can also be shown to "move through" other constellations, including Aquarius, Scorpio, and Ophiuchus (as explained in my 2016 book, Star Myths of the Bible). It is not at all uncommon for very important or central figures in any myth-system to "move through" multiple constellations during a cycle of episodes or adventures. 

But Christ is certainly associated with Sagittarius at some points. It should be pointed out that Sagittarius is a "priestly" constellation in the scriptures of the Bible (and in other Star Myths from around the world), an association which is also discussed in Star Myths of the Bible. On page 147 of his important book Ancient Celtic New Zealand (1999), Martin Doutre also calls Sagittarius the "priestly sign." Note that Christ is explicitly described as fulfilling the priestly function in numerous scriptural passages, perhaps most directly in the epistle to the Hebrews, such as Hebrews 2: 17 and Hebrews 3: 1 and Hebrews 4: 14 (among others).

Sagittarius is the zodiac constellation that is furthest south of the celestial equator of all the zodiac constellations:

sagittarius lowest.png

In the above screenshot from the free, open-source planetarium app Stellarium, I have turned "on" the grid-lines indicating the coordinates of the celestial sphere, so that you can see for yourself that Sagittarius does indeed have stars further to the south than any other zodiac constellation. In the star-chart above, the line of "zero elevation" indicates the celestial equator: it is the line stretching across the screen and marked by the "zero degrees" label which is indicated by the red arrow. The constellation Sagittarius is indicated by the yellow arrow, and you can see that stars of this constellation are located even further south of the line of the celestial equator than any of the stars in the constellation Scorpio, adjacent to Sagittarius.

Thus, Sagittarius is the constellation at the very "turning point" of the year (see discussion in this previous post), the constellation at the point of the "lowest descent" and thus appropriate to the figure of Christ, who in the scriptures of the (so-called) New Testament humbles himself to descend to the lowest place in order to raise men and women back up from their own lowest point: to point them to their own "turning point."

Noting the position of the sun when passing through the sign of Sagittarius, the Reverend Robert Taylor in the first half of the 1800s declared in a sermon that when Simeon in his prophecy regarding the Christ declares that he will be "a sign that is spoken against" (see Luke 2: 34), the text is indicating "the ninth of the twelve signs" (which is to say, Sagittarius -- see The Devil's Pulpit, page 10).

Thus, there appears to be ample supporting evidence for an association of the Christ with Sagittarius in some aspects -- and hence supporting evidence for the argument that the "blessing hand" mudra depicted in the traditional Salvatore Mundi artwork (to include this recently-rediscovered da Vinci painting) is a reference to Sagittarius as well.

Leonardo da Vinci seems to be hinting at these truths in this amazing work of art. We should be grateful that this hidden masterpiece has been rediscovered.

It is, however, sadly ironic that the convoluted journey that this incredible treasure has taken over the centuries, ending up in the "Louvre Abu Dhabi" reveals what can accurately be described as the "neo-feudal" aspects of the modern world economic landscape.

The original Louvre museum, as Andrew McClellan explains in Inventing the Louvre, was seen during the time of the French Revolution as "a sign of popular sovereignty and the triumph over despotism" (7). Great art was to be displayed for all the people (who could visit the Louvre free of charge on three days out of each week) rather than just for the oligarchs of Europe. 

The much-criticized decision by the government of France to sell the name "Louvre" to Abu Dhabi, a nation currently engaged along with Saudi Arabia in waging an illegal and unspeakably horrific war (supported by weapons, tax dollars, and airborne refueling capabilities from the united states as well as other NATO countries) against the impoverished men, women and children of Yemen, can be seen as emblematic of the same "privatization" and "selling out" which characterizes neoliberalism, as discussed in a previous post about museums and artwork, entitled "Transforming everyone and everything into commodities: arguments that museums should sell off their art expose the self-devouring rot at the heart of neoliberalism." 

It can easily be argued that this da Vinci painting is, not merely a "national treasure" (which should not be sold off to private individuals), but indeed a "world treasure," rather than a trading token for private speculators to use to swindle one another for enormous speculative gains. 

The path that the painting has taken, however, from Louis XII of France to Charles I of England (thought to have been brought to England by his Henriette Marie of France, when she married Charles in 1625), to a long period during which its exact whereabouts are now unknown, after Charles died and the painting was given to his creditors in order to settle his debts, to its resurfacing and subsequent sales as described above, can be seen as a metaphor for Michael Hudson's arguments that modern neo-liberalism can actually be properly understood to be a form of neo-feudalism, as discussed in previous posts such as this oneand this one.  

Most of the articles you will find discussing the various auctions of da Vinci's Salvator Mundi (such as the Wall Street Journal article linked above) report the rapidly accelerating sale prices of the painting, on its way to the highest price ever paid for any painting in recorded history, as something to be excited about, rather than as a symptom of the way in which all kinds of treasures which should be seen as properly belonging to the people -- especially in this supposedly-democratic post-feudal era -- have been privatized and sold off to benefit a small number of oligarchs. 

While the painting has at least been given to a museum, where it will be displayed for those who can go see it in Abu Dhabi, one could also argue that this latest stop on Salvator Mundi's long journey typifies the use of oil money to try to buy legitimacy for regimes which are currently engaged in war crimes akin to those which shocked the world during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, which inspired a different artist to paint a very different work of art, shown below.

 image: Wikimedia commons (  link  ).

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

The complete failure of any of the media articles which discuss the amazing rediscovery of da Vinci's Salvator Mundi to give any of the above perspective reveals that the controlled corporate media in general serves to provide cover for neoliberalism, in large part by completely obscuring the very existence of something called "neoliberalism" or its identifying  features, which can be summarized as the privatization of that which nature (or the gods) have given to all of the people, and which inevitably gives rise to the twin evils of "making war and plundering the planet" (as described by Professor Claudia von Werlhof, in an essay discussed here).

Leonardo's painting is an incredible treasure, and one which points to the undeniable message that the world's ancient myths, scriptures and sacred stories are built upon the stars of the heavenly sphere, and allegorize the majestic celestial cycles. In doing so, the ancient myths convey profound and timeless truths regarding the reality of the Invisible Realm which connects all of us to one another, to nature, and to our planet itself -- the Invisible Realm which is the source of every blessing, of all the gifts which are given by nature (to include the gifts of the sunshine, of oceans, of forests, and of mineral wealth buried under the earth), and even of the gift of life itself.

Our departure from these ancient teachings -- and, more specifically, the deliberate usurpation and inversion of those ancient teachings by those wanting to take all of the benefit from those gifts for themselves, while denying them to other men and women -- is in large part responsible for the precarious state of affairs in which we find ourselves at this particular moment in history.

Perhaps the message of Leonardo's Salvator Mundi, buried in obscurity for the past two-and-a-half centuries, and seen by only a privileged few in the two-and-a-half centuries before that, will help to awaken us to the truth, and enable us to make changes that will ensure a better future for future generations, and greater understanding of the precious inheritance represented by the ancient wisdom which was given to all humanity in the world's ancient Star Myths.

Meet the Gods in the Stars, part 3: Virgo (Fall Equinox, 2018)

Meet the Gods in the Stars, part 3: Virgo (Fall Equinox, 2018)

The earth is hurtling towards the point of September equinox for 2018, which is the fall (or autumnal) equinox for the northern hemisphere of our planet.

We will pass through the point of equinox at 6:54 pm Pacific time on September 22, 2018. That is 9:54 pm Eastern time (also on September 22), and 2:54 am on September 23 Greenwich Mean Time (which is also the UTC for the worldwide time standard).

The points of equinox, and especially the fall equinox, play an important role in the world's ancient wisdom contained in the myths, scriptures and sacred stories of virtually every culture on our planet. The fall equinox was used to convey profound truths about our plunge downwards into this incarnate life, and into the seemingly material realm through which we all are sojourning.

For more on the ways that the ancient myths relate to the cycles of the heavens, and in particular the cycle of earth's relationship to the sun, see for example this previous post.

In preparation for this year's equinox, I've just posted a new video entitled "Meet the Gods in the Stars, Part 3: Virgo." This video follows the previous two videos in the same series,

The constellation Virgo is also an exceedingly important celestial figure in the world's ancient Star Myths, and literally hundreds of other connections could be profitably examined having to do with this constellation in the night sky. However, the goal of this new series of videos is to keep them relatively short and more focused than previous videos -- as well as to help viewers to envision the outlines of the constellations and to become more familiar with them.

Previous blog posts which touch on subjects related to those explored in this video include:

Guest Post: Review of Star Myths of the World, Volume Four (Norse Mythology)

Guest Post: Review of Star Myths of the World, Volume Four (Norse Mythology)

vol four front cover 02.jpg

Thank you to longtime correspondent and independent researcher Didier Lacapelle for his recent review of Star Myths of the World and how to interpret them, Volume Four: Norse Mythology.

I have reprinted Didier's review below, but you can and should visit his website Theognosisto read some of his other analysis on related (and somewhat related, or even unrelated) topics. Theognosis is written in French, but if (like me) you are not fluent in the French language, you can use Google Translate to get a sense of Didier's arguments and research. Also, Didier occasionally writes a post in English, as he did with this review of Star Myths of the World, Volume Four, or as he does in this intriguing post about the region of Brittany in France which he published a year ago and which is also worthy of careful examination.

As you can see from his review, as well as from some of the arguments he advances in Theognosis, there are many areas upon which Didier and I have some differing conclusions. However, I personally believe that differing conclusions are to be expected when researchers are faced with an extremely complex puzzle, and that the differences may in fact help to highlight important "pressure points" or "nodes" which may, upon further analysis, turn out to hold the key to unlocking the mystery.

Below is the complete text of Didier's review. Rather than spending too much time on the points of agreement, Didier focuses on areas in which he has disagreements or differing conclusions. I think that you will agree that the subjects upon which he disagrees are extremely interesting and important, and that he brings up several points which are worthy of much further contemplation and examination.


Norse Mythology (Mathisen)

Didier Lacapelle

I have just read the volume IV of the « Star Myths of the World » by David Warner Mathisen, dedicated to the Norse mythology.

It is as good as the previous volumes, probably better, due to the experience acquired with the writing of these ones. For those unaccustomed to his writings, David Mathisen proves – beyond all doubts – that ALL the mythologies of the world depict the same system of constellations to play the role of the different characters, and that they can all be deciphered as the destiny of the human soul when she lives the experience of incarnation. Maybe some proposed identifications of characters with one constellation are not the ones intended by the creator of the myth, but Mathisen openly discusses the case when two or three of them can be the rightful candidate, and – really – it is not easy to spot a myth where he could be off the mark.

After the decipherment of the myths of ancient Greece, of Old and the New Testament, maybe there are other popular myths that could benefit from this treatment. I think of the Arthurian cycle for example !

Though I have elements of disagreement that are not new. David knows my points, but I want to recall them to the reader, in order to use this fantastic result to go further in other fields of research that are dear to me.

First, if ALL the systems of myths follow the same set of constellations, my guess would not be that a more ancient system, known to all the cultures of the world, was at the origin of them. The points of similarity are limited to one or two names shared by two cultures, and similar stories can be spotted. This has lead to a whole field of academic research, the comparative mythology, which uses the notion of typology to explain these points of similarities. Some authors will say that the gospels have been made upon the homeric epics, according to the supposed epoch when these different texts were put down to writing. Some will say that there is an original myth from which all the myths of the world come from. Mathisen is without doubt a partisan of this school. Yet they were unable to frame this « original » system. It is due to the fact that each system has a very different « taste ». We know that Thor is a nordic god, Apollo greek, and Osiris egyptian.

My own guess is that if the set of constellations is the same, then the authors of the myths are the same. And if christian literature – I mean the roman catholic literature – the very texts that were chosen by the roman clergy to tell the life of Jesus and his apostles, contain these sacred teachings about the destiny of the soul, and these constellations, it means that the roman clergy wrote all of them according to this knowledge, which they had in full.

Mathisen points the fact that Argo navis and Centaurus are clearly used in the set of constellations that frame the norse mythology, though they are not to be seen in the night sky in these northern latitudes.

The story that we are told is that the « literal » christianity have smashed the ancient pagan lore and cut us from the gods that live among us, and even inside us, for an unique god whom only the priests could reach for the benefit of the community. The christian church is guilty of the creation of a feudal system, for the benefit of the clergy and the nobility too. The whole system was a yoke for the people in a terrestrial meaning, as it was destined to a life of servitude and even slavery. It was a yoke in a spiritual meaning too, as the people was forbidden to use his own spiritual ressources, and cut from his divine part. This is the scheme David Mathisen depicts in his book.

And he is not really wrong : our modern world can be described as an « undercover » caste system – the caste are still there, but they are not depicted as such, as we are led to believe in democracy through the electoral system and a general system of « contractualisation ».But were the systems we call « traditional » among the ancient cultures, here and  elsewhere, not at all caste systems ? They were caste systems, no doubt about this ! The hindu system comes immediately to the mind. The Romans and the Greeks had citizens, plebeians and slaves. Women were not given right to participate in the life of the city.

One can argue that these civilizations, though using a full knowledge of the spiritual system described, were a degenerate offspring of the goold old shamanic cultures. But when we listen to the shaman Elena Michechtkina, people in Siberia are not free to practice shamanism in the same individual way that western neo-shamanism practicioners are free to experience. No one can decide to be a shaman : the spirits choose the person authorized to be a shaman, and one cannot decide he does not to want to be a shaman. As the shamans are public figures, a shaman enter a pyramidal hierarchy of shamans among whom he must accomplish his duties. It was NOT the right of everyone to access to the realm of the divine.

So what the roman catholic faith did was to keep the knowledge away from a general misuse. What the old trial papers teach us is that the population was upset about the wide use of sorcery and often there were unlawful retaliations. More and more the public courts admitted these trials and were inclined to severe punishments, even death sentences. What the roman catholic inquisition did was to give the right for the presumed sorcerers to defend themselves with the help of the « devil’s advocate ». The papacy published bulls to forbid to kill a sorcerer, and the sentences that should be applied for a crime related to sorcery. « Being » a sorcerer was not a crime, one would have to kill someone with magic to receive a death sentence. But this was not an easy enquiry. Most of the time, all that was left as proof was an accusation. Judicial errors were numerous. So was « the right of everyone to have access to the divine ». The catholic church chose to hide the teachings. And I believe that this is exactly what the siberian shamans try to do with their order of shamans. The caste system was probably in ruins in Europe, and many « freelance operators » had appeared.

The catholic church is responsible of other important innovations : she put an end to the « original sin », the sin to be born in flesh, which lead all men and women to have a debt from birth to repay. The son of God died once and for all to wash away our sins. In the same time, this was the end of the practice of human sacrifice at different moments of the year to appease the gods, and – yes – wash away the sins of the tribe. And it was this very same catholic church that preserved – and probably created – many of these worldwide myths that we currently study.

Michael Hudson is an academic in the field of economics. David Mathisen quotes him to put the blame on the roman catholic church for the creation of feudality and slavery for debt. But this is the kind of society in Babylon, ancient Rome, Old Testament and – I would add – the order of the Knights of the Temple. This is precisely what the roman catholic church, Paul at first, was willing to overcome. Though clearly the church hides the spiritual teachings from view precisely while she pretends to give full access to the secrets to each and every one of us.

We are used to say that traditional societies did not view death as a taboo, while the modern world tries to forget about it in an insane way. But maybe while doing this, we project upon them the virtues we think are lacking inside of us. Many ancient societies viewed the birth on this Earth as the original sin, and the planet as a purgatory. We are the fallen angels, we are the morning star that crashed upon Earth (Lucifer aka Christophoros). So when a myth as Ragnarok speaks of the end of a golden age and a global cataclysm, he conveys the signification of the end of life in the realms of the divine (where the stars do not set) to an incarnate life. More on this soon.

We can feel there are lies spread concerning the modern history of the church. We are told that the roman catholic church forbid to read the Bible. Which Bible ? The Geneva Bible in english is one of the first to have a year of publication in the second part of the 16th century. In catholic Brittany, every catholic family had one or several bibles at home in the 20th century. We are told that the roman catholic church cast fear upon the people with the original sin. But in the gospels, Jesus washes it away for ever (with the condition to believe in him, but this condition is not so hard to fulfill for the roman church).

We are told that the Reformers wanted to be free to read the Bible for themselves, in a kind of « democracy » as we like it. But they believe that salvation is only for the elected ones, the ones that share the gift of the grace given by God to believe in him. And this belief is proven by the wealth of the person ! Jesus for them washed away the original sin for ever for the rich ones. The poors had to give up the sin of birth to welcome the sin of being an unbeliever.

As the canonic literature is proven to be gnostic in essence, could what we call « gnostic literature »  be proven to follow such a set of constellations ? I believe that yes, it can. But what is possible is that the set is not exactly the same, maybe a prior one.

Another point that I do not agree with is the importance given to the phenomenon of precession of the equinoxes. Following the opinion of Giorgio de Santillana et Hertha Van Dechend, the authors of the famous book « Hamlet’s mill », David Mathisen suggests that the end of the « golden age of the gods », or the end of the next age of heroes came through another constellation rising in the east at dawn at the equinox of spring. This is described in words of a worldwide cataclysm. I shall say my arguments against this statement :

  • A change of the constellation rising at the equinox does not put an end to nothing in real life. Comets are more likely to be feared

  • The « ages » of the zodiac suggest that each age remains for a time equal to 2160 years, as a portion of 30° of the sky, corresponding to the the size of a constellation. But 30° is the place the « sign » occupies in a tropical zodiac, when the real constellation has been replaced by the houses they represent. The real constellations of the zodiac are of different sizes. Some are very large as Virgo, and some smaller, as Cancer.

  • The exact size of the constellations have not been given prior to the 19th century, and there were debates and revisions even at the beginning of the 20th century. I was impossible for prior civilizations to know where a constellation started or ended

  • Old lore speak of ages that end in cataclysms. Sometimes ancient astronomists show a knowledge of precession. There is absolutely no basis in texts that prove that the ages end when precession leads to a change of the constellation rising at dawn at the equinox of spring. And most of the times, old astronomists do not know of the phenomenon of precession, or widely fall off the mark. The « Great year » in Egypt is 1400 years long, far from the real value of a precessional age : 2160 years. The expressions « Age of Taurus », « Age of Aries », etc. have been popularised in the 19th century by occultist authors

  • A zodiac is at first linked to a calendar. All the ancient calendars are tropical (and even lunisolar), which means that they follow the course of the sun in one year, not the stars. The only « sidereal » calendar, which could suggest an interest for the change of place of the stars, is the egyptian « sothic » calendar. I have shown that Sothis has been mistaken to be the star Sirius, but it is the constellation of Taurus. This means that the « sothic » calendar is in fact the tropical and lunisolar calendar of Nippour.

  • A precessional cycle is unnecessary to provide an explanation to the « cycle stories ». A yearly cycle is enough.

It is much more logical to conclude that the name of twelve constellations were chosen to represent the twelve « houses » of 30° that complete the circle of 360°, but that they were never meant to be identical. The slipping of the constellations could possibly help us to calculate the time when the zodiac we now use was drawn.

But this suggests that men use the same zodiac from a time immemorial, and a calendar where the years are very close to a gregorian modern solar year. This is not the case : the muslim year, the jewish year, the celtic, the greek and the nordic year used to be made of months starting at a full moon or a new moon. With twelve months they approach a solar year (355 days for a jewish year) and additional months are needed, either added by observation of the skies, or by the use of a system, as the metonic cycle (seven years among the 19 years cycle are given an additional month). It can be proven beyond doubt that France used the hebrew calendar before 1582 and the introduction of the gregorian calendar. That is what all the books from the epoch say, except the liar Scaliger.

In these lunar calendars, the current sign of the zodiac is often the one that appears at dusk in the east, and not at dawn. The Pleiades, near Taurus, are the sign of Samonios (near november) in the celtic calendar, not may or april. This would be illogical as the constellation of the month would appear and immediately disappear as the sun rises. I suggest that an important constellation for the month would be seen well this very month. So when the gregorian calendar was put in place, the zodiac system had to be reversed.

There is no basis in the old calendars to speak of an Age of Gemini, that would be the Golden Age, when Gemini had its heliacal rising at the equinox of spring, because this kind of « heliacal rising » at dawn are unknown to observers of the lunisolar calendars.

Though this is a clever assumption made by the authors of Hamlet’s mill. It is clearly proven in this book that the Milky Way is the bridge (or tree, etc.) by which the deceased one reach the « undying stars » at the top of the stellar sky, or even where they dwell, as the orphic and pytagorean teachings seem so say. This is the channel by which the shaman access to the other realm too. The authors quote Macrobius when he writes that the souls ascend through « the gate of Capricorn » (which they suggest to be Sagittarius, the constellation at the foot of the Milky Way) and descend through the « gate of Cancer » (Gemini, at the top of the column). Alvin Boyd Kuhn say that one equinox would code for incarnation and the second one for death. And this is precisely the problem because in order for both ideas to be right, Gemini or Sagittarius must be the « sign of the equinox » (true in modern astrology only), and the reason why good communication could only happen in the golden age of Gemini.

Well, how did we do since ? The first statement is right, the second one is not. Clearly, there is a time in the year coding as the time for incarnation, and the opposite point of the year is the time of death. But these points were not the equinoxes : they were at Samhain and Beltaine in the celtic world, Tishri and Nisan for the jewish cult (which are closer to the equinoxes than their celtic counterparts). And while some civilizations are very literal – as the dead will rise to the other realm precisely at these moments of the year – most of them consider an allegory, as the dead shall not wait for Samhain to journey to the heavens. Quite possibly the opposite is true : the feast would convey the idea that the dead come to visit us and incarnate, as incarnation is the real « death ».

The Golden Age is not depicted at the Age of Gemini, anywhere in the greek texts. It is a time when the stars did not set nor rise, revolving « like a hat upon the head ». This is a realm where the stars are eternal, so it is the realm of the souls, not the time when we had easy access to it. This is the realm of Cronos and other dying gods/sleeping gods when they represent the soul that descend into the flesh (not precession !). This Golden Age can be allegorized with two other pictures : the stars that can be seen inside the arctic circle (they do not rise nor set), and the stars in the upper part of the sky (which do not rise or set either).

The egyptian Book of the dead speaks of a « confusion of years, disturbing of months ». How is this supposed to code for a precession of the equinoxes when the calendar is lunisolar, not stellar ?

« The sign of thy coming and of the end of the world », « the sign of the Son of man in the sky » in Matthew is Aquarius. This is the sign that is associated with the first month of the year in the system of Eudoxus. This is the end and the renewal of the solar year. And why suddenly is this not Gemini, if it is a precessional reference ? This « end of the year » in Aquarius can be a reason why the action in the Ragnarok episode goes in the direction of the Great Square of Pegasus/ Pisces, then go backwards many times in the story.

The numbers thought to be precessional (432 000 warriors come to battle from Vallhala at Ragnarok), 72 henchmen with Seth to murder Osiris, 10 800 bricks for the building of the altar of Agni, 108 suitors in the palace of Odysseus…) are in close relation to the 360° cycle, as fractions or multiples of 60 or 12. Yes, 72 is close to 71,6 years, the time for the precession to reach 1° of sliding. But was the circle of 360° made upon this 72 ? I don’t think so.

The scraps of nails cut from the dead warriors to build the ship Naglfar, the scraps of leather cut from the shoes of the warriors that makes the shoe of Vidarr, bits of precession ? In a lunisolar year, I prefer the fraction of a lunar month that is necessary to complete a full solar year, about ten days after 355 in the regular year, not a full lunar month of 29 or 30 days.

A darkened sun, water that replaces ground (some stars that were under the line of horizon replace some other stars that can be seen in summer), a displacement of the stars, all of this can be related to an end of the year in winter, soon to be followed by a new sun reborn. This is not true of the end of an Age of Gemini. If the connexion with the realm of the gods has been lost due to the end of the time when Gemini was the sign of the equinox, then this was a long time ago and not soon to be seen again. There is no renewal to hope.

Has the Bifrost bridge (the Milky Way) been broken because of the precession of the equinoxes that brought a loss of the connexion between our realm and the realm of the divine ? If it is the end of the Age of Gemini that is depicted, the channel has been lost a long time ago and is not soon to come again. Though a breaking of the Bifrost bridge is clearly suggestive of a loss of the ability to reach the realm of the dead. What I suggest is that at the beginning of a new incarnate life, or at the beginning of a cycle of incarnate lives, the connexion between the two realms is really difficult, quite impossible. The soul has to recall herself in order to rebuild the connexion, piece by piece.

The end of the world happens in many myths because divine beings – angels in the Bible, Titans in the greek myths, Aesir in the norse myths, etc. – have broken some limits or laws. The end of a golden age comes when an angel (a soul) comes to incarnate. This is precisely the same template in the Bible, when the incarnation of Adam and Eve is said to be « the original sin ». And this is why in all these ancient cults, man is born with a debt from birth, in order to repay for his original sin. The deluge and all kinds of coming of a great mass of water or episodes of drowning, as David Mathisen have many times shown, are symbols for the incarnation. This is not an allegory of the precession of the equinoxes !

All these episodes depicting a « mass incarnation » are describing a worldwide catastrophe. Possibly this is the view all these ancient cultures had upon life on earth, as the Cathars or the reformed christians in the 16th century (which are not reformed christians at all, but old fashioned catholics) had. And there is a good possibility that the civilisation of the « norse myths » shared this mind. To « honor the gods » was seemingly a synonym for « fight the enemy with bravery and face death without fear ». This is a bit of true and a lot of false morals, similar to the exoteric interpretation of every lore. We are very far from shamanic abilities made available to each and every one. And far from the modern neo-shamanism where earthly experience is valued as a school for the soul.

There was another important sin besides the original sin to be born in flesh in these ancient cultures : it was the mortal sin. This one was synonym only to sorcery. A murderer could be prayed for. A sorcerer not. Mathisen tells us precisely this regarding the old german civilization.

It is suggested that all these shamanic practices were common in former times, and that we lost these abilities when our ideologies became more materialistic. This is not true : the 21st century western people possess far superior abilities to connect to the invisible realm than the people who lived in the old times and even than the more traditional societies. Our spiritual bodies are far larger, which can make the mental or the astral trip available to most of us while the shamans were rare in the old societies. It can be a reason why some rulers try to make us busy with meaningless jobs, and a lot of entertainment.

-- The above review and analysis is by Didier Lacapelle, writing in his site: Theognosis

Meet the Gods in the Stars, Part 2: Aquarius

Meet the Gods in the Stars, Part 2: Aquarius

I've just posted a new video entitled "Meet the Gods in the Stars, Part 2: Aquarius" as a follow-up to the previous video, which was also entitled "Meet the Gods in the Stars" and which focused primarily on the constellation Hercules and some of the gods and mythical figures of the Infinite Realm whose characteristics we understand by seeing the visible stars of Hercules in the heavens.

The goal when making this latest series of videos is to keep them short and focused.

Nevertheless, despite its relatively short length, this new video examines some deities not previously discussed in any blog post, book or video thus far, including the goddess Ganga of India and the  somewhat hermaphroditic god Hapi of ancient Egypt.

The constellation Aquarius is an extremely important celestial figure, and hundreds of other connections could be discussed in addition to those touched upon in this video.\

The gods and all the figures of ancient myth, from virtually every culture on our planet, can be seen in the stars of the infinite heavens.

The ancient wisdom imparted to our ancestors in remote antiquity as a precious inheritance is as necessary today as it has ever been -- perhaps even more necessary. We can go to the ancient sources themselves to hear the message they want to tell us, but in order to do so, it is most helpful to listen to them in the language that they are actually speaking: the language of celestial metaphor, the language of the stars.

Know the stars -- Change the world.

The Truth is Up There.

Meet the Gods in the Stars

Meet the Gods in the Stars

I've been thinking about ways to make some shorter videos for those who may prefer to see a more focused topic than a twenty- or thirty-minute video that covers more ground but which also takes longer to watch.

Here is a new video entitled "Meet the Gods in the Stars," showing some of the figures in ancient myth who are associated with the constellation Hercules.

The gods and all the figures of ancient myth are seen in the stars of the infinite heavens. You can see them for yourself, but only if you know the outlines of the constellations -- and as this video demonstrates, the outlines of the constellations continue to be deliberately obfuscated, as if to prevent us from seeing the truth, that the world's ancient myths, scriptures and sacred stories are built on a world-wide foundation of celestial metaphor.

We can meet the gods ourselves if we learn how to listen to the myths in the language they are actually speaking: the language of the stars.

Seeing the Star Myths: Capricorn, Aquarius and the Southern Fish

Seeing the Star Myths: Capricorn, Aquarius and the Southern Fish

I've just posted a new video entitled "Seeing the Star Myths: Capricorn, Aquarius and the Southern Fish."

This is the fifth in a series of videos aimed at improving our "constellational literacy." Most men and women have a difficult time seeing the connections between the myths and the stars (or even understanding what I mean when I say that the world's ancient myths and scriptures are based on a system of celestial metaphor) because most people cannot actually draw out the shapes of the major constellations or even envision in their minds, due to the general obscuration of the system of outlining the constellations that was used by the ancient sages who gave these myths to humanity.

In this video, we examine some extremely mythologically-important constellations, and discuss their relation to a few ancient myths -- including the story of "Doubting Thomas," which was explored in some detail in previous blog posts including:


This is the fifth video in the "Seeing the Star Myths" series. Previous videos are linked below:


Please feel free to leave feedback and to share the videos with those who might find them helpful, and I hope they will help you to confidently locate Capricorn, Aquarius and the Southern Fish in the night sky for yourself -- perhaps for the first time!

September 11, 2018

September 11, 2018

Above is a video documentary which was recorded in summer of the year 2004, entitled "The Great Conspiracy," featuring Canadian journalist Barrie Zwicker which presents some of the most damning analysis of the lies in the official explanation of the events surrounding the mass-murders perpetrated on September 11, 2001 of any documentary that has been produced to date.

If you have not previously watched this video from start to finish, you should watch it in its entirety.

Even if you do not agree with all of the conclusions that the documentary suggests regarding motives or perpetrators, the evidence that is laid out in this video is absolutely devastating to the official storyline of the events of September 11, and absolutely devastating to the credibility of the fraudulent 9/11 Commission Report which was published on July 22, 2004.

The incontrovertible facts presented about the complete lack of air defense response (including a total absence of military interceptor aircraft), the additional detail and facts surrounding the infamous photo-op visit of the president to the Florida elementary school while the mass-murders were taking place, the flatly inaccurate statements presented in the official report which are contradicted by the facts, and the universal failure of the supposedly free press to critically examine these failures and inaccuracies (a failure in the conventional media which continues to this day, so many years later) reveal quite clearly that the ongoing official narrative of "9/11" is a lie and a fraud.

"The Great Conspiracy" totally demolishes the official narrative based primarily upon those lines of investigation, and does so for the most part without even resorting to the physics-based evidence surrounding the freefall-speed collapse of the twin towers into their own footprints, as if fires could somehow instantaneously and simultaneously vaporize the 110 floors in each tower and all the reinforced steel holding up those floors, and the even more damning evidence surrounding the freefall-speed collapse of WTC Building 7 (also supposedly due to fires), which was a 47-storey reinforced-steel skyscraper which was not even struck by any aircraft and which must obviously have been destroyed by controlled demolition. 

That additional "architectural and engineering" evidence is equally devastating to the fraudulent official narrative of the murderous events of that day, and if you have not seen David Ray Griffin's discussion of this evidence, you can see one of his presentations on that line of investigation here, and at the bottom of that same post you can see a discussion by Barbara Honegger regarding serious discrepancies in the official narrative of the Pentagon attack of September 11, 2001 as well.

One of the strongest aspects of Barrie Zwicker's "Great Conspiracy" documentary is the film's examination of the historical context of previous false-flag attacks which have consistently been employed to whip up public support for launching illegal wars of aggression, as well as to create "states of emergency" to falsely "justify" the elimination of civil liberties and the increase in surveillance and control over the domestic population.

Another of its most important points is made by researcher and author Webster Tarpley during a video clip which begins at approximately 0:35:00 in "The Great Conspiracy." During his presentation, Mr. Tarpley makes the assertion that the "indispensable ingredient" in such a false-flag operation is the corporate-controlled media (this assertion begins at 0:37:37 in the video). The media is required, he explains, in order to "pound the official version of the events into the minds of the people, and to smooth-over the inevitable absurdities, contradictions, impossibilities, and so forth of the official story."

This role of the controlled media in propagating and sustaining the fraud in the face of all evidence to the contrary cannot be emphasized enough. The importance of this point simply cannot be overstated. 

The continued widespread (and largely unquestioning) acceptance of the false official narrative, and the continued repetition of that narrative in the media, along with the simultaneous suppression of the glaring "absurdities, contradictions, and impossibilities" of that same official story by the media themselves, right up to this day (seventeen years later), should prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the media dutifully plays this role in the "western world" and that its representatives will lie shamelessly when directed to do so.

As we approach the seventeenth anniversary of those world-changing mass murders, which launched illegal wars of aggression costing millions of lives, and which led directly to the gross and ever-increasing infringement of Constitutionally-guaranteed rights and liberties, it is absolutely imperative that we educate ourselves to the fullest possible extent regarding the facts of the September 11th attacks, which have been and continue to be used as the central and unquestioned argument for all of the ongoing illegal wars of aggression, illegal surveillance of the citizenry and illegal violation of the rights, freedoms, and privacy of men and women.

It is absolutely imperative that we wake up to the duplicitous and unrepentant lies of the corporate-controlled media, and to their role in shamelessly suppressing the truth regarding events such as the murders of President John F. Kennedy, the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Senator Robert F. Kennedy, and the mass murders of September 11, 2001.

It is absolutely imperative that we avail ourselves of information and evidence that is presented by conscientious researchers and analysts through various outlets, including YouTube videos but also through alternative media platforms such as Global Research and others like it (while exercising our own critical thinking to assess the evidence and arguments presented). I have previously recommended (see here and here) going back and listening to just about every archived interview of  Bonnie Faulkner's Guns & Butter, and I would continue to recommend doing that if possible (once again while exercising your own critical thinking to assess the evidence and arguments presented).

Gathering data from a wide array of viewpoints and a wide variety of researchers, journalists, and authors is the only way to possibly assemble any hypotheses regarding the big picture of what is going on.

Finally, I would argue that it is absolutely imperative that we understand the remedy available through democratic governance for the redress of criminal conspiracies and the prevention of illegal wars of aggression. I personally do not agree with those who (primarily from a "libertarian" or even anarchist point-of-view) argue for getting rid of, or at least radically diminishing, quote-unquote "the government." 

To the contrary, I would point out that a democratically-elected government which is following and upholding the principles enshrined in, for example, the Bill of Rights, is probably the best way to address the media monopolies and the blatant infringement by tech giants upon the rights to free speech and "the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects" that we have seen accelerating since September 11, 2001 -- as well as for reining-in and reversing the egregious militarization of the police which has also been accelerating since the launch of the so-called "War on Terror" following the mass murders of September 11th. 

In fact, I would argue that such a democratic government, backed by a well-informed and educated populace, and upholding the principles articulated in the Bill of Rights (as well as the many anti-trust laws and laws such as the Posse Comitatus Act, which are already on the books and which were won by the generations which went before our own), would be among the few things that criminal cabals and conspiracies fear the most -- which is why their manipulation of the people through the controlled mass-media is the "indispensable ingredient" in their fraudulent schemes, and why educating men and women (as well as the children of the upcoming generations) in these subjects and rights is an absolutely critical project and one which we should all adopt as our responsibility to ourselves, to the men and women around us, and to those young people who are depending on us for the future they will inherit.